Tommy Koh and the U.S.-Singapore Free Trade Agreement: A Multi-Front ‘Negotiation Campaign’

Laurence A. Green

Harvard Business School

James K. Sebenius

HBS Negotiations, Organizations and Markets Unit

December 16, 2014

Harvard Business School NOM Unit Working Paper No. 15-053


Complex, multiparty negotiations are often analyzed as principals negotiating through agents, as two-level games (Putnam 1988), or in coalitional terms. The relatively new concept of a «multi-front negotiation campaign» (Sebenius 2010, Lax and Sebenius, 2012) offers an analytic approach that may enjoy descriptive and prescriptive advantages over more traditional approaches that focus on a specific negotiation as the unit of analysis. The efforts of Singapore Ambassador-At-Large Tommy Koh to negotiate the United States-Singapore Free Trade agreement serve as an extended case study of a complex, multiparty negotiation that illustrates and further elaborates the concept of a negotiation campaign.

Tommy Koh and the U.S.-Singapore Free Trade Agreement- A Multi-Front ‘Negotiation Campaign’

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