The Effects of the Transcendental Meditation Program on Mindfulness

The Effects of the Transcendental Meditation Program on Mindfulness

images (10)Melissa A. Tanner, American University
Fred Travis and Carolyn Gaylord-King
Maharishi University of Management Research Institute
David A. F. Haaga,American University
Sarina Grosswald and Robert H. Schneider
Maharishi University of Management Research Institute

Mindfulness is associated with low levels of neuroticism,anxiety,and depressive symptoms,as well as high levels of self-esteem and satisfaction with life(Brown & Ryan, 2003).As part of a 3-month randomized waitlist-controlled trial of the effects of the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program on university students(N 5 295),we examined the impact of TM practice on mindfulness as measured by the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS; Baer, Smith,& Allen,2004).A repeated measures ANOVA on total KIMS scores showed a significant time treatment interaction,with the TM participants reporting greater increases in mindfulness than the waitlist participants.All KIMS subscales were positively intercorrelated at pretreatment,and there were no differences over time or as a function of treatment condition in subscale intercorrelations.
Therefore,previously published findings of a positive correlation between subscales measuring the skills of observing and accepting without-judgment one’s inner experiences only among those with meditation experience may have reflected a self-selection effect rather than a change in the relation of these mindfulness components resulting directly from meditation practice.& 2009 Wiley Periodicals,Inc.J Clin Psychol 65: 574–589,2009.

The Effects of the Transcendental Meditation Program on Mindfulness

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