The adoption of the Uruguay Round agreements and the setting up of the World Trade Organization (WTO) at the international level and the conclusion of various association and free- trade zone agreements1 at the regional and subregional level are regarded as marking the start of a new era in international economic and industrial relations.
Many developing countries and economies in transition view with concern the dawn of a new economic era characterized by the globali- zation of trade. While some countries react, pre- pare themselves and seek to take up the chal- lenge, others fail to react and, at the risk of further impoverishment, surrender themselves to the dominant forces of history. In this new atmos- phere of continual change and at the request of a number of countries, the United Nations Indus- trial Development Organization (UNIDO) has developed a technical assistance, restructuring and upgrading programme to prepare and adapt industries and their environments to the new con- text of globalization, which is marked by tough competition.
METHODOLOGICAL GUIDE: Restructuring, upgrading and industrial competitiveness