Games, Claims, and New Frames: Rethinking the Use of Simulation in Negotiation Education

Daniel Druckman

George Mason University – Department of Public & International Affairs

Noam Ebner

Creighton University School of Law – Werner Institute for Negotiation and Dispute Resolution

January 20, 2013

Negotiation Journal 29(1), 61-93, 2013


Negotiation educators have long considered the use of role-play simulations an essential classroom teaching method, and have had high expectations regarding their suitability and efficacy for teaching.

In this article, we review the literature, examining the degree to which simulations deliver on these perceived benefits – finding that simulations enjoys only limited advantages over other teaching methods.

We note three trends that have developed as part of this re-evaluation process: improving the way simulations are conducted, deemphasizing the use of simulations as a teaching tool while seeking new methods, and finding paradigm-changing uses for simulations.

With regard to this last trend, we describe our own experiments assigning students to design their own simulations, rather than participate in them as role-players. Among other benefits of the design method, we found that designers showed greater improvements in concept learning and motivation than did role-players.

Games, Claims, and New Frames- Rethinking the Use of Simulation in Negotiation Education


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